Skip to content

Basic Parts of a computer

Today computers are everywhere, from home, school, business, shopping mall, vehicle, machines, science work, experiment, and so on. I use a laptop in my day to day work regularly, and people like me are also not different. Therefore, it is essential to know the basic parts of a computer system.

The computer is an electronic device. It can store and process data. A computer uses a set of instructions to carry out arithmetic and logical operations. A computer system is a combination of hardware and software.

There are various simple parts of a computer system. Here I have listed some common hardware parts of a desktop computer.

The following are the basic parts of a computer list:
1. Monitor
2. Keyboard
3. Mouse
4. CPU
5. Printer
6. Speaker

Parts of PC
Basic Parts of computer

1. Monitor

It is an output device. The monitor looks like a TV screen because it is a display device. Sometimes, the monitor is also called a visual display unit (VDU). There are different sizes of monitors available in 14 inches, 15 inches, 17 inches, 18 inches, 19 inches, 21 inches, 22 inches, 23 inches, 24 inches, 25 inches, 26 inches, 27 inches, and even 36 inches in size.

There are four different types of monitor categories based on the technology they used.

  1. CRT monitor
  2. LCD monitor
  3. LED monitor
  4. Plasma monitor

CRT monitor:

CRT monitor
Fig: CRT monitor

It is the older monitor that uses a cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. They are larger in size and much heavy. CRT has an electronic vacuum tube employing a focused beam of electrons.

LCD Monitor:

These are lightweight, compact, and occupy less space. LCD monitor consumes low power. LCD stands for liquid crystal display.

LED Monitor:

LED stands for light-emitting diode. The LED monitor enhances image quality, sharpness, and better color than the LCD monitor.

Plasma Monitor:

It is similar to an LCD monitor.

2. Keyboard

It is an input device. The keyboard helps to type words, numbers, and symbols. Users can enter data or instructions on the computer with the help of it, to work on a desktop. Different parts of the computer keyboard are often categories as follows:

Alphanumeric keys: Letters and numbers.

Punctuation keys: comma, period, semicolon, colon, and so on.

Special keys: Control keys, Function keys, Arrow keys, and so on.

3. Mouse

A mouse is a pointing device. The mouse helps to point an object on the screen and can give input to the computer. There are two types of the mouse: an optical mouse (modern) and a mechanical mouse (older).

4. CPU

The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the basic operations of a computer system. It can perform arithmetic and logical operations. A CPU can also control the input/output operations that are specified by some set of instructions.

5. Printer

It is an output device. You can print your documents, photos by using the printer. There are two types of printer impact printer and non-impact printer.

Impact printer prints character on paper by a striking mechanism. Some examples: dot matrix printer, daisy wheel printer, drum printer, chain printer.

Non-impact printer prints character or images on a paper by using the laser beam, electrostatic, chemical, or inkjet technology.

6. Speaker

The speaker is an output device. The computer uses a speaker to provide information as audio.


You can find the above basic parts or input/output devices on all computers. These basic components of a computer system are easy to identify.
I wish that you have got the knowledge of the basic parts of a computer.

Related article: “What is a computer? Block diagram of a computer.”